Testing approaches are an essential part of software engineering and are therefore on topic here on Software Engineering (and probably also on Software Quality Assurance & Testing ).
But questions like “is there a name for this practice?” are much more tricky. They are probably not a good fit for the Stack Exchange Q&A format.
It is typically better ...
I agree with amon that your question has a great start, but the final sentence
Is there a name for this practice? Are there patterns and frameworks to avoid reinventing the wheel?
will undoubtly make it prone to be downvoted, closed ("needs more focus") and deleted.
Instead, I would usually recommend to describe what you tried by yourself, where ...